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Wright Studies
Como Orchard Summer Colony (University Heights), Darby, Montana (1909) (S.144)
 
This past summer my wife and I had the opportunity to travel through Montana, so she graciously allowed me a detour through the beautiful Bitterroot Valley in the Southwestern corner of Montana, just a few miles South of Missoula. The goal was two fold. To document the two remaining buildings designed by Wright in the Como Orchard Summer Colony, University Heights in Darby, and to locate the original site of the Bitter Root (S.145) North of Stevensville. They were two separate projects, financed by the same company, the Bitter Root Valley Irrigation Company, but are physically over forty miles apart. These two, along with the Lockridge Medical Clinic in Whitefish (S.425) (1958) make up the three Wright projects in Montana.
       In preparation for our visit to the original site of the Como Orchard Summer Colony I contacted the present owner of the property, Charles Roland. Unlike the "cold inhospitable place" discovered by Lewis and Clark in September 1805, I found the Bitterroot valley beautiful and inviting, actually commenting to my wife that this would be a beautiful place to retire. Driving from Hamilton to Darby early Saturday morning, I was overwhelmed with its beauty. Norman Maclean’s "A River Runs Through It" was written about life during the early twentieth century in Missoula, on the Northern end of the Bitterroot Mountains. As I parked, two deer were grazing not more than 30 feet away. Charles graciously gave me a guided tour, and then allowed me access to the two remaining Wright buildings.
       Stevensville was the first permanent settlement in the state of Montana. It was settled by Jesuit Missionaries at the request of the Bitter Root Salish Indians. Through their interactions with the Iroquois between 1812 and 1820, the Salish leaned about Christianity and the Jesuits that worked with Indian tribes teaching them agriculture, medicine, and religion. In 1831, four young Salish men were dispatched to St. Louis to request a "blackrobe". They were directed to William Clark (Lewis and Clark). At that time Clark administered their territory. During their trip two of the Indians died at the home of General Clark. The remaining two met with Bishop Rosati who assured them that missionaries would be sent when funds and missionaries were available. In 1835 and 1837 the Salish dispatched men again. Finally in 1839 a group of Iroquois and Salish met Father DeSmet in Council Bluff, IA. He promised to fulfill their request the following year. He finally arrived two years later in Stevensville on September 24, 1841 and called the settlement St. Mary’s. He immediately built a chapel, then log cabins and Montana’s first pharmacy. In 1850 Major John Owen arrived in the valley and set up camp north of St. Mary’s. He established a trading post and military strong point named Fort Owen, which served the settlers, Indians, and missionaries in the valley. In 1853 territorial Governor Isaac Ingalls Stevens spent time surveying the area as he slowly moved west following Lewis & Clark’s trail. He was called back to active duty with the Union Army. He was killed in action in 1862 at Chantilly. In 1864 St. Mary's was changed to Stevensville in his honor.
       The area of Darby was first settled in 1882. The Northern Pacific Railroad’s expansion in Montana between 1883 and 1887, resulted in the completion of seven branch lines. One was the Missoula & Bitter Root Valley Railroad, which ran from Missoula, through Victor and Hamilton, ending in Darby. (Rails to Gold and Silver Vol. 1, Bill and Jan Taylor, 1999.) In 1888 Postmaster James Darby named the town after himself. The name stuck.
       In 1887 Marcus Daly, one of Montana’s "Copper Kings" came to the Bitterroot valley in search of timber for his Butte mines. He built a mill and formed the town of Hamilton. He built a beautiful summer home in 1887 and accumulated over 22,000 acres for timber and for his hobby of breeding and racing thoroughbred horses. He named his ranch the Bitter Root Stock Farm. By 1888 over one million board feet of lumber was milled every week in the Bitterroot valley. The town of Hamilton which was along the route of the Northern Pacific Railway, was incorporated in 1894. Calamity Jane even opened a cafe on Main Street in 1896. By the time Daly passed away in 1900, Hamilton was the commercial center of the Bitterroot Valley and the seat of Ravalli County.
       One of Marcus Daly’s projects was a canal and ditch system for irrigating his land. It was abandoned after his death. In 1905 Samuel Dinsmore continued the concept and started developing the "Big Ditch", an 80 mile irrigation project from Lake Como (Northwest of Darby) to Florence, just north of Stevensville. After running into financial difficulty, it was reorganized with the help of   Chicago financiers W. I. Moody, Frederick D. Nichols (1906 - S.118) and others and renamed the Bitterroot District Irrigation Co. By 1904 Moody was General Manager of the Muncie Works,
  producing Iron and Steel as well as operating Natural Gas Wells. Their offices were in the Rookery Building in Chicago. Wright remodeled the Rookery in 1905 (S.113). Moody visited the Bitterroot Valley in 1905. By 1907 they had purchased and sub-divided large sections of the valley into 10 acre parcels for fruit orchard development. They paid $2.50-$15 per acre and resold "apple orchard tracts" at $400-$1,000 per acre. The company quickly became rich.
       By 1909 three rail lines ran to Missoula, Montana. The Missoula & Bitter Root Valley Railroad connected Missoula on the North with Darby on the South end. Land, transportation and water. A perfect combination. Most likely because of Nichols’ relationship with Wright and Moody’s knowledge of Wright, he was hired to design two developments. Como Orchard Summer Colony and the town of Bitter Root (S.145) . In February 1909 Wright, Moody and Nichols visited the valley (FLWNL).
       The first of the two developments, the Como Orchard Summer Colony, consisting of the Master Plan, the Clubhouse and Inn, Cottages and the Manager’s Office. Developed for the Como Orchard Land Company, a subsidiary of the Bitter Root Valley Irrigation Company, they were marketed to University of Chicago Professors as "University Heights Community and Orchards." The area is still called University Heights today. Purchase five to ten acres and a cottage, and the company would manage the orchard and market the crop. Perfect for a professor. Vacation for three months and enjoy the Bitterroot Valley. The Clubhouse was conceived as the center of the community. It consisted of two communal Dining Rooms, one on either side, a two story lounge in the center for gathering, three fireplaces, guest bedrooms upstairs, a kitchen and servants rooms, and large porches that ran the length of the front. A open balcony overlooked the lounge. With communal Dining Rooms in the Clubhouse, most Cottages were designed without kitchens. All buildings were board and batten, the windows were designed with wood mullions. An irrigation channel from Lake Como ran through the development’s 1600 acres. Of the over fifty cottages that were planned, twelve were constructed. Today, one Cottage and the Manager’s office remain and are maintained.
       There were many classic Prairie styled Wright details in the Clubhouse and original Cottages. The basic material was wood, utilizing horizontal board and batten siding. Strong horizontal lines, low-pitched roof, broad overhanging eaves, horizontal rows of mullion divided glass windows and glass doors, centrally located stone fireplaces and chimneys, balconies and porches. Wright designed built-in planters like many of his buildings at that time, but they were eliminated when constructed to keep costs in line. Although the Cottages were economically built, Wright details still exist. Partition walls like those he designed in Usonian homes. Mullion windows, stone fireplaces and designed ceiling details. They were built as summer Cottages so lacked central heating.
       Wright visited the site in February 1909, construction began in May. One of Wright’s drawings of the Clubhouse was a winter scene, no doubt a result of his February visit.
       Where as the first development was conceived more as community, the second development for the Bitter Root Valley Irrigation Company was the site plan for the town of Bitter Root. The only structure built was the Bitter Root Inn. It opened in October of 1909. Sales was aimed at the wealthy. The "apple boom" was on. Investors from the east were wined and dined. They were given free rail passage and transportation where they were lavishly entertained at the Bitter Root Inn. Lodging, dinner and golf were free. So was the French wine.
       The boom was short lived. Blight destroyed much of the valley’s crop in 1913. Law suits plagued the company. They filed for bankruptcy in 1916. In 1923 the McIntosh-Morello Orchards became the new owners. The Clubhouse became a storage and packing facility for the new company and the bedrooms were used for seasonal workers. It also failed and the Clubhouse was finally dismantled in 1945. Other Cottages were destroyed over the years. Only two original building survive today. One three bedroom Cottage and the Manager’s Office.
       Little remains of the "dreams" and "schemes" of the Como Orchard Summer Colony near Darby, Montana. A cursory glance reveals little of Wright’s original designs. Dreams change, memories fade, time passes, life goes one. But if not for the dreams of Moody, Nichols, Wright and a few University Professors that caught that dream, the Como Orchard Summer Colony would never have been conceived and built.
       Text by Douglas M. Steiner, Copyright September 2009.
 
 
  Fort Owen 1853    Isaac Ingalls Stevens    Rookery Building    University Heights 1908 Ad 
  Original Clubhouse Floor Plan    Original Cottage Floor Plan    Manager's Office Floor Plan 
  Wasmuth Portfolio Plates 1910    Clubhouse 1923    Clubhouse 1929    Clubhouse Site 2009   Darby Ranch 2006  
 Three Bedroom Cottage 2009    Three Bedroom Footnote    Manager's Office (One Room Cottage)  
  Fireplaces    Books & Articles 
 
 
Fort Owen, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, September 1853
Fort Owen - Flathead Village. U.S.P.R.R. Exp. & Surveys - 47th & 49th Parallels. General Report - Plate XXX. Stanley, Del. Sarony Major & Knapp Liths. 449 Broadway, N.Y.
The Stevens expedition, following the Lewis & Clark Trail, arrived at Fort Owens on September 28, 1853. Territorial Governor Isaac Ingle Stevens wrote: "I would earnestly urge all persons desirous to know the minute details of the topography of this valley to study carefully the narrative of Lewis and Clark; for to us it was a matter of the greatest gratification, with their narrative in hand, to pass through this valley and realize the fidelity and the graphic character of their descriptions." Published in "Reports of Explorations and Surveys to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean." Made under the direction of the Secretary of War in 1853-5. Volume XII, Book I. Washington: Thomas H. Ford, Printer 1860. Illustrated by John Mix Stanley.
 
 
Isaac Ingalls Stevens

 

Honorable Isaac Ingalls Stevens. First Governor of he newly created Washington Territory which included Washington, Idaho, parts of Montana and Nebraska. Circa 1855-1860. Courtesy Library of Congress.

 

General Isaac Ingalls Stevens.
Photographed March 1862 in Beaufort, S.C. by Timothy H. O'Sullivan shortly before his death. Courtesy Library of Congress.

 

 
Rookery Building 1905 (S.113)
By 1904, W. I. Moody was General Manager of the Muncie Works, producing Iron and Steel as well as operating Natural Gas Wells. Their offices were in the Rookery Building in Chicago. Wright remodeled the Rookery in 1905 (S.113).
 
 
"University Heights" Community and Orchards Ad (1908)
The Chicago Alumni Magazine - March 1908 "An Unusual Opportunity." Half page ad for the Como Orchard Land Co. "University Heights, Community and Orchard... with a plan of providing for each investor a summer cabin in an attractive village community. A few Five and Ten-Acre Tracts still available in he division reserved for the University of Chicago..."
 
 
Original Clubhouse Floor Plan
The Clubhouse was conceived as the center of the community. It was approximately 213.5 feet long, two stories tall and built on a 3.5 foot grid. The first floor included two communal Dining Rooms, one on either side, a two story lounge in the center for gathering, three fireplaces, the kitchen, service area and small offices. Each end had a porte cochere (carriage entrance passing through a building) with stairs that lead up to expansive partially covered porches. Dining Room doors were designed to open outward onto the porches. An open second floor balcony overlooked the first floor lounge. Wright designed built-in planters like many of his buildings at that time, but they were eliminated when constructed to keep costs in line.  More on the Clubhouse...
 
The second floor included 18 Guest Rooms, two Men’s and two Women’s Baths in the center. Six Servant Rooms and two Bathrooms were in the center wing, but could only be accessed from the kitchen below. An open second floor balcony overlooked the first floor lounge. There were Balconies and built-in planters on either end and also in the front on either side of the two story Lobby.  More on the Clubhouse...
 
 
Original Cottage Floor Plan
Although many changes were made to the remaining cottage over the past one hundred years, Wright details still exist. Partition walls like those he designed in his later Usonian homes. Mullion windows, stone fireplaces and designed ceiling details. More on the remaining Cottage...
 
 
Manager's Office Floor Plan
Although many changes were made to the Manager's Office over the past one hundred years, a few Wright details still exist. Mullion windows and a stone fireplace. More on the Manager's Office...
 
 
 Original floor plan copyright 1993, “The Frank Lloyd Wright Companion”  Storrer, William Allin, page 145-147. Modified by Douglas M. Steiner, Copyright 2009.
 
 
Four Plates from the Wasmuth Portfolio, 1910
In 1910, Ernst Wasmuth the German publisher produced a pair of portfolios covering the work of Frank Lloyd Wright entitled "Ausgeführte Bauten und Entwürfe von Frank Lloyd Wright". The "Wasmuth Portfolios" secured Wright's reputation in Europe and enormously influence the architects of the day. Printed in German,   the two portfolios consist of 100 separate plates. 72 plates were numbered I through LXIV and included eight with a or b. 28 were tissue overlays and were attached to the corresponding plates. There were only four projects that Wright felt were worthy of four sheets. Continue...
     
 
 
Como Orchard Clubhouse Winter Scene
Wright visited the Como Orchard site in February 1909. Wright illustrated the Clubhouse as a winter scene, no doubt a result of his visit. Construction began in May 1909. Courtesy of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation.
 
 
Como Orchard Clubhouse Circa 1923
Few photographs exist of the Clubhouse. Construction began in May 1909. By early 1910 construction was complete. The inscription in the image below indicates that it was photographed in 1923. There is a white "sign" visible in the second Lounge window from the right in this image and the one below. The landscaping in the foreground is also consistent in each image. After 35 years, the Clubhouse was dismantled in 1945.
 
"Johnsons 23 UH" is inscribed in the bottom right hand corner. In 1923 the McIntosh-Morello Orchards became the new owners. The Clubhouse became a storage and packing facility for the new company and the bedrooms were used for seasonal workers. There are two similarities with this image and the one above. There is a white "sign" visible in the second Lounge window from the right, and the landscaping in the foreground is also consistent. These images could have been taken to promote the new McIntosh-Morello Orchards.
 
 
Como Orchard Summer Colony Circa 1929
"Johnsons '29 U-H-10" is inscribed in the bottom right hand corner. The Clubhouse is in the center of the photograph. To the left most likely is a barn erected for horses and storage for the orchards. Five cottages can be seen in the background on the left and the right. Fruit trees are visible as-far-as the eye can see.
 
Detail of the Clubhouse in the center. To the right is the three bedroom cottages that still exists today.
 
 
Como Orchard Clubhouse Site 2009
The original Clubhouse was dismantled in 1945. A new metal-sided barn was erected on approximately the same site. Compare mountains in the background to those above in the circa 1923 image.
 
 
Darby ranch owner relishes his land's colorful history, 2006

When Charles Roland looked at a piece of property north of Darby in 1991, he had no idea two of its buildings had been designed by one of this country's most famous architects...
       Two modest wood-frame houses are all that remain of University Heights, a planned community designed by Wright in 1909 and promoted by the Como Orchard Land Co. to attract university professors and other academics from the Chicago area. Wright's plan called for 53 separate cottages to be built around a large central lodge - all part of a 1,600-acre apple orchard planted in 1907 south of Lake Como...
       By 1912, about a dozen cottages as well as the spacious lodge had been built, but the project was a financial failure and the orchard community never made it to fruition...

         "On his return and until the first of May, Wright designed (the community's) central clubhouse, all of the cabins, and the site plan for the Heights. ... Wright's drawings are dated April 1909, construction of the clubhouse began on May 5, 1909, and very soon thereafter work began on 12 cabins. By March 1910 all were complete, and all fit the aesthetic model of Wright's personal style."
       Since the home had no electricity at the time it was built, it was outfitted with gas lamps connected by a pencil-thick metal tube. Roland said he learned from a neighbor that gas was actually manufactured on site and piped to each of the cottages. Many of the lamps and pieces of the metal tubing still remain, but none have been lighted in years, he said...  Continue...
     
 
Three Bedroom Cottage Photographed by Douglas M. Steiner, 2009
The Como Orchard Summer Colony was marketed to University of Chicago Professors as "University Heights Community and Orchards." The area is still called University Heights today. Purchase five to ten acres and a cottage, and the company would manage the orchard and market the crop. Perfect for a professor. Vacation for three months and enjoy the Bitterroot Valley. The Clubhouse was conceived as the center of the community. It   contained two communal Dining Rooms and a two story lounge in the center for gathering. As a result, most Cottages were designed without kitchens. Of the over fifty cottages that were planned, twelve were constructed. Today, one Cottage and the Manager’s Office remain and are maintained.
       Like the Clubhouse, this cottage was built on a 3.5 foot grid and is approximately 1850 square feet. In 1982  Continue...
     
 
 
Footnote to the Three Bedroom Cottage, 1982
"The Last Cottage of Wright's Como Orchard Complex"
Until the early 90s very little had been written, documented or photographed that pertains to the Como Orchard Summer Colony.  With that said, there is a very important article documenting the condition of the Three Bedroom Cottage in 1982 written by Grant Hildebrand and Thomas Boswoth. "The Last Cottage of Wright's Como Orchard Complex" published in the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, December 1982, Pp 325-327. Because of its "bad condition" the owners scheduled it for demolition.          They contacted "the University of Washington to discuss either moving the building or recording it."  Because of the condition, size, difficulties of transport and later changes to the cottage, the decision was made to "record the building in its hypothetical original state."
       They document many changes. A small porch was added to the Northwest corner after completion (now enclosed). An interior wall in the west wing dividing the Entry Hall...  Continue...
 
 
 
Manager's Office (One Room Cottage), Photographed by Douglas M. Steiner, 2009
The Manager's Office is an example of the one-room Cottage. Like the Clubhouse, this cottage was built on a 3.5 foot grid and is approximately 300 square feet. In 1982 the Manager's Office was in a "hopeless condition, much modified and near collapse", according to Hildebrand and Bosworth. Many changes have been made over the past 100 years. The original exterior horizontal board and batten siding still exists. While the design is visually   pleasing, due to the extreme Montana weather, it enhances its deterioration. The Porch on the East end has been added and the Roof obviously extended by observing the underside of the Roof over the porch. A room has been added to the West end of the Cottage. Two of the original seven windows have been replaced. The original front door has been replace.  Continue...
     
 
 
Como Orchard Summer Colony Fireplaces, Photographed by Douglas M. Steiner, 2009
The Como Orchard was marketed to University of Chicago Professors as a "Summer Colony." Perfect for a professor. Vacation for three months and enjoy the Bitterroot Valley. As a summer Cottage, there was no need to go to the expense of central heating. But evenings could get chilly. And with Wright's philosophy that “the hearth is the center of the home”, a fireplace was an integral part of the design.          The Clubhouse contained three fireplaces. It was conceived as the center of the community. It contained two communal Dining Rooms with a fireplace in each, and a two story lounge in the center for gathering which included a fireplace. But with the loss of the clubhouse in 1945, and so few images available, it is possible to gain a glimpse of what the clubhouse fireplaces may have looked like by studying the two that remain.   Continue...
     
 
 
Additional Biographical Information and Reading
     
  The Iron and Steel Works of The United States, 1904
Compiled and Published by The American Iron & Steel Association, Philadelphia, PA. Sixteenth Edition, Printed by Allen, Lane & Scott, Philadelphia
Includes information concerning W. I. Moody, General Manager of the Muncie Works, American Rolling Mill Corporation, with offices in the Rookery Building (S.113), Chicago, Ill. Moody was involved in financing and promoting the Como Orchard Summer Colony, University Heights (S.144) and the Bitter Root Inn (S.145).
Pp 468
     
  The Chicago Alumni Magazine - March 1908
Published monthly by The University of Chicago Alumni Association, The University of Chicago, Chicago.
Advertisement for Como Orchard Land Co. P 21.
"An Unusual Opportunity." Half page ad for the Como Orchard Land Co. "University Heights, Community and Orchard... with a plan of providing for each investor a summer cabin in an attractive village community. A few Five and Ten-Acre Tracts still available in he division reserved for the University of Chicago..."
     
  Overland Monthly - January 1909
Published monthly by The Overland Monthly Company, San Francisco, CA and Butte, Montana
By George M. Teale
"The Bitter Root Valley." Description and information on the Bitter Root Valley. Includes 22 photographs. Includes information on the Bitter Root Valley Irrigation Co. and W.I. Moody. "...and some day the inhabitants will look back to these days and bless the day that the B. R. V. I. Co. was organized." Moody was involved in financing and promoting the Como Orchard Summer Colony, University Heights (S.144) and the Bitter Root Inn (S.145).
     
  Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians - December 1982
Hildebrand, Grant; Bosworth, Thomas
"The Last Cottage of Wright’s Como Orchards Complex."
Pp 325-327
     
  National Register of Historic Places, Hamilton, Montana. 1988
Published by the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Washington D.C.
Michels, KirkPp 325-327History of Hamilton, Montana and the surrounding area. Includes historical information on the Big Ditch Development, the Bitterroot District Irrigation Co., and the two planned communities designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, which included "University Heights near Darby and the town of Bitterroot near Corvallis."
Pp 21
     
  National Register of Historic Places, Stevensville, Montana. 1991
Published by the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service Washington D.C.
Montana State Historical Preservation Office Staff
Multiple Property Documentation Form. History of Stevensville, Montana and the surrounding area. Includes historical information on the "Apple Boom", the Big Ditch Development and the Bitterroot District Irrigation Co. "The new townsite of Bitterroot was platted just north of Stevensville, and the Bitterroot Inn, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, was built in 1920 and served as an informal headquarters for the Chicago-based land developers and investors."
Pp 30
     
  Alpine Meadow Ranch, Flyer, 2003
Published by the Alpine Meadow Ranch, Darby, Montana
"Montana’s only Frank Lloyd Wright designed guest ranch, retreat and wildlife refuge - the historic and unique Alpine Meadow Ranch... In 1910, Frank Lloyd Wright was commissioned to design a development that would allow people from the city to live in the mountains, pick apples, socialize, and live in a little utopia. It is believed that Wright visited the site to select the locations of the dwellings." Includes three photographs and one illustration.
Pg 1
     
  Alpine Meadow Ranch, Brochure, 2005
Published by the Alpine Meadow Guest Ranch, LLC, Darby, Montana
"Montana’s only Frank Lloyd Wright designed guest ranch, retreat and wildlife refuge - the historic and unique Alpine Meadow Guest Ranch, LLC... In 1910, Frank Lloyd Wright was commissioned to design a development that would allow people from the city to live in the mountains, pick apples, socialize, and live in a little utopia. It is believed that Wright visited the site to select the locations of the dwellings." Includes nine photographs and one illustration.
Pp 6.
     
  Twice a Mail Order Bride, The Story of Grandma Rush, 2006
Published by Stoneydale Press Publishing Company, Stevensville, MT
Stroud, John
"This Local History also touches on.. the connection of the Apple Boom to the Bitter Root Inn designed by Frank Lloyd Wright; as well as the irrigation from Lake Como south of Hamilton. Lake Como was named by Father Antonio Ravalli after a lake very similar to this in the Alps of his native Italy." (Publishers description.) Includes information and three images of the Bitter Root Inn designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
Pp 104
 
 
Related Books
"The Iron and Steel Works of The United States" 1904, P 468.
"Ausgeführte Bauten und Entwürfe von Frank Lloyd Wright". 1910.
"In The Nature of Materials, The Buildings of Frank Lloyd Wright 1887 - 1941", 1942, Hitchcock, P 55, Plate 167.
"An American Architecture", Wright, 1955, page 64.
"Frank Lloyd Wright to 1910, The First Golden Age" 1958, Manson, Pp 205 - 207.
"Frank Lloyd Wright: A Study in Architectural Content" 1966, Smith, Pp 84, 89-90.
"Frank Lloyd Wright: An Interpretive Biography" 1973, Twombly, Pp 179.
"Frank Lloyd Wright, His Life and His Architecture" 1978, Twombly, Pp 224-225.
"The Prairie School Tradition. The Prairie Archives of the Milwaukee Art Center." 1985, Spencer, P 72.
"National Register of Historic Places, Hamilton, Montana" 1988, Kirk, P 21.
"Frank Lloyd Wright In His Renderings 1887-1959", Text: Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks;
Edited and Photographed: Futagawa, Yukio, 1990, Plate 49. (Note: Miss labeled as the Bitter Root Inn.)
"Frank Lloyd Wright Monograph 1907-1913", Text: Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks;
Edited and Photographed: Futagawa, Yukio, 1991, pages 92-93, 96.
"National Register of Historic Places, Stevensville, Montana" 1991, P 30.
"The Wright Space, The Pattern & Meaning in Frank Lloyd Wright's Houses" 1991, Hildebrand, Pp 172n24, 176n13.
The Frank Lloyd Wright Companion”, Storrer, 1993, Pp 145-147.
"Frank Lloyd Wright: Architect", Riley, Reed, Alofsin, Cronon, Frampton, Wright, 1994, Pp 63, 91, 96, 328.
"Lost Wright", Lind, 1996, Pp 110-111.
"Frank Lloyd Wright", McCarter, 1999, Pp 237-239
"Frank Lloyd Wright - Field Guide, Volume 3, West", Heinz, 1999, P 66.
"Frank Lloyd Wright: The Western Work", Legler, 1999, Pp 14-17.
"Wrightscapes. Frank Lloyd Wright's Landscape Designs", Aguar, 2002, Pp 133-138.
"Twice a Mail Order Bride, The Story of Grandma Rush" Stroud, 2006, Pp 104.
 
 
Related Articles
Overland Monthly - January 1909, Teale, "The Bitter Root Valley." Pp 59-69.
Frank Lloyd Wright Newsletter - Second Qtr 1982 V5#2, Ludwig, "Wright in the Bitter Root Valley of Montana" Pp 6-16.
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians - December 1982, Hildebrand; Bosworth
"The Last Cottage of Wright’s Como Orchards Complex."  Pp 325-327
Ravalli Republic, "Darby ranch owner relishes his land's colorful history", Daniel, 2006
 
 
 
Additional Wright Studies
 
Adelman (S.344)    Banff National Park Pavilion (S.170)    Bitter Root Inn (S.145)    Blair Residence (S.351)    Blumberg Residence (Project) 
 
Boomer Residence (1953 - S.361)    Brandes Residence (S.350)    Browne's Bookstore (S.141)    Como Orchard Summer Colony (S.144)  
 
Cooke Residence (1953)    Copper Weed Urn & Weed Holder   
Disappearing City (1932)    Elam Residence (S.336)    "Eve of St. Agnes" (1896)  
 
Feiman Residence (S.371)    Frank L. Smith Bank (S.111)    Gordon Residence (S.419)   
Griggs Residence (S.290)    Hartford Resort (Project 1948) 
  Heller Residence (S.038)   
Henderson Residence (S.057)   
Hoffman Showroom (S.380)    Horner Residence (S.142)    "House Beautiful" 1896-98  
  Husser Residence (S.046)    Imperial Hotel (S.194) Silverware and Monogram    Japanese Print Stand (1908)    Kalil Residence (S.387)  
 
Lake Geneva Hotel (S.171)
   Lamp Cottage, Rocky Roost (S.021)    Lockridge Medical Clinic (S.425)    Lykes Residence (S.433)  
 
Marden Residence (S.357)    March Balloons    Midway Gardens (S.180)    Midway Gardens Dish (S.180)    Nakoma Clubhouse  
 
Nakoma Furniture    Opus 497    Pebbles & Balch Remodel (S.131)    Pilgrim Congregational Church (S.431) 
Loren B. Pope (S.268) 
  
Roloson Rowhouse (S.026)    Shavin Residence (S.339)    Sixty Years Exhibition 1951-56    J. L. Smith Residence (1955)    Steffens Residence (S.153)  
  Stohr Arcade (S.162)    Stromquiest Residence (S.429)    Sutton Residence (S.106)    Teater Studio (S.352)    Thurber Art Galleries (S.154)  
  Tracy Residence (S.389)    Trier Residence (S.398)    Usonian Automatic Homes    Williams (Way & Williams) (S.033)  
 
Wyoming Valley School (S.401)   
Zimmerman Residence, (S.333) 
 
Frank Lloyd Wright's First Published Article (1898)
 
Photographic Chronology of Frank Lloyd Wright Portraits
 
"Frank Lloyd Wright's Nakoma Clubhouse & Sculptures." A comprehensive study of Wright’s Nakoma Clubhouse and the Nakoma and Nakomis Sculptures. Now Available. Limited Edition. More information.
 
 
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