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WRIGHT STUDIES

Peter C. Stohr Arcade Building, Chicago, IL (1909 - S.162)

 
   Introduction    Presentation Drawing    Drawings    Window Designs    Historic Photographs    Destruction  
  Replaced    Track Map    Related Items    Related Books  
 
 
Introduction
     
Little has been written, and I have to admit, I knew nothing about the short lived Stohr Arcade. So when I stumbled upon a photograph, I was surprised and intrigued. I thought I was aware of most of Wright's work.
       Peter C. Stohr (1859-1912) was born in New York City in 1959. In 1890, at the age of 31, he married Julia A. Collins. She was born in 1862 in Toledo, Ohio, the daughter of Jasper P. Collins and Mary A. Collins. Peter began is career in the railway business as an office boy for the Rock Island Railroad. In 1887, he was a General Eastern Agent for the Minnesota and Northwestern Railroad Company (1). By 1891, Peter was an officer for the Chicago, St. Paul & Kansas City Railway, working as a General Freight Agent in Chicago, Illinois (2). In 1892, the railroad was reorganized under the name of Chicago Great Western Railway. By 1895 he had relocated to the St. Paul office where at the age of 36, a daughter was born. Julia B. Stohr became a well known landscape and portrait artist. (JB). In 1897 Peter continued as an officer with the Chicago Great Western Railway as a General Freight Agent in the St. Paul office (3). From 1899 to 1904 the Stohrs lived at 502 Grand Hill, St. Paul, Minnesota (502). By 1901 Peter had been promoted to Traffic Manager in the St. Paul office as an officer with the Chicago Great Western Railway (4).
       In 1905 the Stohrs moved back to Chicago when he was hired by Edward H. Harriman as an Assistant Traffic Manager for the Southern Pacific Company, the Union Pacific System, and Oregon Short Line Railroad (5). Harriman controlled the Union Pacific, the Southern Pacific, the Saint Joseph and Grand Island, the Illinois Central, the Central of Georgia, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, and the Wells Fargo Express Company, among other things. In 1906, Stohr was one of three men considered for the promotion to Traffic Manager (Second Vice President), second only to Mr. Harriman (6). He was not promoted, and continued as Assistant Traffic Manager with the Harriman organization until his death in 1912 (7).
       It is hard to imagine today, the city expanding North "toward" the corner of Wilson and Evanston (Broadway), which is just a few blocks West of Lincoln Park. But at the turn of the century, Wilson was the end of the line. In 1900, the Northwestern Elevated Railroad ended at Wilson Avenue. Farms could still be seen from the elevated platform. The population continued to expand North, and in 1908 the track was extended to meet the demand. With Peter’s involvement with the railway, and knowledge of the property involved, he saw an opportunity in a piece of property which was most likely owned by the railroad. In 1908 he signed a 35 year leased for the 120 by 320 foot triangular site and set out to improve the site with stores and offices. There were many challenges, not the least of which was the fact that a great part of the property lay under the elevated tracks. Not much is known about Stohr’s knowledge or relationship to Wright, but working for one of the wealthiest businessmen in the country, and coming in contact with men of that caliber, it is hard to image that Wright’s name did not come up.
       Like many, he may have admired Wright’s work at the time. The Unity Temple, Oak Park, 1904. The Rookery Building, Interior, Chicago, 1905. The Robie Residence, Chicago, 1906. The Coonley Residence, Riverside, 1907. Browne's Bookstore, Chicago, 1908. The City National Bank and Park Inn Hotel, Mason City, IA 1909. These are just a few of the more prominent buildings that Stohr might have seen and known about.
       Not only was it a triangular piece of property, but a majority of the property was situated under the elevated tracks. Wright
  had to incorporate the steel girders from the tracks above. He took advantage of the Southeast corner which came out from under the tracks, and designed a three story section. The length of the building consisted of a row of shops and offices that opened up into a Mezzanine. Hence, the Stohr Arcade. The second floor design, is almost reminiscent of the Gale Residence (1904, Oak Park, S.098), and the third floor is consistent with Wright’s Oak Park Prairie style designs. The flat roof was reinforced concrete. The chimney extends twelve feet above the roof line. Wright designed large geometric vases placed atop integrated pedestals, and continuous window boxes for planting. He also designed cube and sphere lighting fixtures that topped integrated pedestals at the corner entrance. There exists no photographic evidence that the vases were ever added, but a form of the light fixtures were installed above the Southeast corner on the roof of the first level as designed.
       There are design themes that are reminiscent of the Robie House designed three years earlier (S.127) (1906). The proposed vase is the same as the Robie House vase. One design for the entrance light fixtures are a variation of the Robie House Living Room fixtures, but mounted at the bottom instead of the side.  No cantilevered roof, but the building is anchored to the ground by placing it on an enlarged concrete base.  There are consistent horizontal bands, and the third floor is offset in much the same way.  There is a row of horizontal windows directly below the roof on the third floor. And one of the proposed window concepts is an adaptation of the geometric design of the Robie windows.
       The most unique elements of this design are the second floor windows. Like the Zimmerman Living Room windows, this design is never used again. Although there are a few examples of semi circular windows and many arched doorways, the vast majority of windows were always rectangular. The second floor window design consisted of large windows topped by an arched circular curve. The glass was divided vertically by a single mullion, and three horizontally curved mullions. It was not until 1948 in the Sol Friedman Residence (S.316) that he designed curved windows. And again in 1956, a variation with the Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church (S.399).
       This may be the first example of Wright's use of mitered corners.  The street level has at lease two visible examples.  Wright designed many corner windows up to this point, but never mitered corners.  He expanded the use of mitered corners in the Freeman Residence (S216) (1923).  They became prevalent, almost a trade mark in his later work. When Wright left for Europe, he turned over the responsibility of finishing the work on the Stohr Arcade on September 22, 1909 to Herman Von Holst who worked in his office (9).
       Just three years after the Stohr Arcade was completed, obituaries reported on April 25, 1912 that after a weeks illness Peter C. Stohr passed away in his home (7). He was at the early age of 53. The Chicago Blue Book of 1912 listed his address at the time as 1367 N. State Street in Chicago (8).
       During the late teens or very early 1920s, an addition was added to the Southeast corner.  The addition can be seen in the December 1922 photographs of the demolition.  It enclosed the mitered glass corner, the glass light fixtures and incorporated a new clock. Sadly in 1922, just 13 years after it was built, the Peter C. Stohr Arcade Building was demolished to make way for expanded service. It was replaced by a "White City" styled station.
       Text by Douglas M. Steiner, Copyright May 2009
 
 
 
Stohr Arcade Building Presentation Drawing, 1909
     

Not only was it a triangular piece of property, but a majority of the property was situated under the elevated tracks. Wright had to incorporate the steel girders from the tracks above. He took advantage of the Southeast corner which came out from under the tracks, and designed a three story section. The length of the building consisted of a row of shops and offices that opened up into a Mezzanine. Hence, the Stohr Arcade. The second floor design, is almost reminiscent of the Gale Residence (1904, Oak Park, S.098), and the third floor is consistent with Wright’s

  Oak Park Prairie style designs. The flat roof was reinforced concrete. The chimney extends twelve feet above the roof line. Wright designed large geometric vases placed atop integrated pedestals, and continuous window boxes for planting. He also designed cube and sphere lighting fixtures that topped integrated pedestals at the corner entrance. There exists no photographic evidence that the vases were ever added, but a form of the light fixtures were installed on the Southeast corner on the roof of the first level as designed.
 

Courtesy The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation 1987

Wright took advantage of the Southeast corner which came out from under the tracks, and designed a three story section. The length of the building consisted of a row of shops and offices that opened up into a Mezzanine.
 
The second floor design, is almost reminiscent of the Gale Residence (1904, Oak Park, S.098), and the third floor is consistent with Wright’s Oak Park Prairie style designs. The chimney extends twelve feet above the roof line.
 
The flat roof was reinforced concrete. Wright designed large geometric vases placed atop integrated pedestals, and continuous window boxes for planting. He also designed cube and sphere lighting fixtures that topped integrated pedestals at the corner entrance.
 
Wright also designed cube and sphere lighting fixtures that topped integrated pedestals at the corner entrance.
 
The length of the building consisted of a row of shops and offices that opened up into a Mezzanine.
 
 
 
Stohr Arcade Building Drawings, 1909
 
  Proposed Drawing    Drawing of Completed Building 
 

The Stohr Arcade was a beautifully designed building. There are design themes that are reminiscent of the Robie House designed three years earlier (S.127) (1906). The proposed vase is the same as the Robie House vase. One design for the entrance light fixtures are a variation of the Robie House Living Room fixtures, but mounted at the bottom instead of the side.  No cantilevered roof, but the building is anchored to the ground by placing it on an enlarged concrete base.  There are consistent horizontal bands,

  and the third floor is offset in much the same way.  There is a row of horizontal windows directly below the roof on the third floor. And one of the proposed window concepts is an adaptation of the geometric design of the Robie windows. The chimney extends twelve feet above the roof line.

Illustrations were drawn from originals by Douglas M. Steiner and are a close representation.
 
Proposed Drawings of the Peter C. Stohr Arcade
Proposed design elements: The proposed vase for the Stohr Arcade is the same as the Robie House vase. The building is anchored to the ground by placing it on an enlarged concrete base. There is a row of horizontal windows directly below the roof on the third floor. And one of the proposed window concepts is an adaptation of the geometric design of the Robie windows. The chimney extends twelve feet above the roof line.
 
See additional illustrations.
 
Drawings of the Completed Peter C. Stohr Arcade
Actual design elements: There exists no photographic evidence that vases were ever added, but a form of the light fixtures were installed on the Southeast corner on the roof of the first level as designed. Most of the decorative windows were eliminated, possibly due to cost constraints, but the arched windows were installed.. The chimney extends twelve feet above the roof line.
 
Illustrations were drawn from originals by Douglas M. Steiner and are a close representation. Copyright 2009.
 
 
 
Stohr Arcade Building Window Designs
     

The most unique elements of this design are the second floor windows. Like the Zimmerman Living Room windows, this design is never used again. Although there are a few examples of semi circular windows and many arched doorways, the vast majority of windows were always rectangular. The second floor window design consisted of large windows topped by an arched circular curve. The glass was divided vertically by a single mullion, and three horizontally curved mullions. It was not until 1948 in the Sol Friedman Residence (S.316) that he designed curved windows.

  And again in 1956, a variation with the Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church (S.399).
       Beside the arched window, three other window designed were proposed. One carried the circular theme. The second is an adaptation of the geometric design of the Robie windows. The third is consistent with the prairie styled.
       Illustrations were drawn from originals by Douglas M. Steiner and are a close representation.
 
The second floor window design consisted of large windows topped by an arched circular curve. The glass was divided vertically by a single mullion, and three horizontally curved mullions.
 
Two of the proposed window designs. One carried the circular theme. The second is an adaptation of the geometric design of the Robie windows.
 
The third window design is consistent with the prairie styled.
 
 
Illustrations were drawn from originals by Douglas M. Steiner and are a close representation. Copyright 2009.
 
 
 
Historic Photographs of the Stohr Arcade Building
     

Not only was it a triangular piece of property, but a majority of the property was situated under the elevated tracks. Wright had to incorporate the steel girders from the tracks above. He took advantage of the Southeast corner which came out from under the tracks, and designed a three story section. The length of the building consisted of a row of shops and offices that opened up into a Mezzanine. Hence, the Stohr Arcade. The second floor design, is almost reminiscent of the Gale Residence (1904, Oak Park, S.098), and the third floor is consistent with Wright’s

  Oak Park Prairie style designs. The flat roof was reinforced concrete. The chimney extends twelve feet above the roof line. Wright designed large geometric vases placed atop integrated pedestals, and continuous window boxes for planting. He also designed cube and sphere lighting fixtures that topped integrated pedestals at the corner entrance. There exists no photographic evidence that the vases were ever added, but a form of the light fixtures were installed above the Southeast corner on the roof of the first level as designed.
 
Stohr Arcade Building Circa 1914

Courtesy of the Krambles-Peterson Archives

View looking North down Evanston (Broadway). Just a few years after the building has been completed. Wright took advantage of the Southeast corner which came out from under the tracks, and designed a three story section.
 
Detail of above image. View looking North down Evanston (Broadway). Wilson Avenue runs East and West.  Just a few years after the building has been completed. Wright took advantage of the Southeast corner which came out from under the tracks, and designed a three story section.
 
Stohr Arcade Building Circa 1917

Courtesy of the Chicago Historical Society

Viewed from the Northeast. A form of the light fixture Wright designed is visible above the Southeast corner on the roof of the first level. Large windows at the top of the first floor allow light into the interior and swing open at the bottom allowing air to naturally cool the building. The second floor window design consisting of large arched curves which were unique only in this Wright building.
 

Courtesy of the Krambles-Peterson Archives

Viewed from the Northeast. On the far left, the Southeast corner of the street level, the mitered glass corner is visible. This may be the first example of Wright's use of mitered corners. The street level has at lease two visible examples.  The large sets of vertical windows on the right cover two floors.
See Additional details.
Text by Douglas M. Steiner, Copyright 2009
 
 
 
Destruction of the Stohr Arcade Building 1922
     

During the late teens or very early 1920s, an addition was added to the Southeast corner.  The addition can be seen in the December 1922 photographs of the demolition.  It enclosed the mitered glass corner, the glass light fixtures and incorporated

  a new clock. Sadly in 1922, just 13 years after it was built, the Peter C. Stohr Arcade Building was demolished to make way for expanded service. It was replaced by a "White City" styled station.
 

Courtesy of the CTA Collection

Just 13 years after the Peter C. Stohr Arcade Building opened it was demolished to make way for expanded service. The addition added to the Southeast corner can be seen in the center of the photograph. It enclosed the mitered glass corner, the glass light fixtures and incorporated a new clock.
 
The addition added to the Southeast corner can be seen in the center of the photograph. It enclosed the mitered glass corner, the glass light fixtures and incorporated a new clock.
 
The addition added to the Southeast corner can be seen in the center of the photograph. It enclosed the mitered glass corner, the glass light fixtures and incorporated a new clock.
 
View looking North down Evanston (Broadway). The addition added to the Southeast corner can be seen in the foreground on the left. It enclosed the mitered glass corner, the glass light fixtures and incorporated a new clock. December 1922.
 
 
 
The Stohr Arcade Building Replaced 1923
     

Sadly in 1922, just 13 years after it was built, the Peter C. Stohr Arcade Building was demolished to make way for expanded

  service. It was replaced by a "White City" styled station designed by architect Arthur U. Gerber.
 

Courtesy of the Krambles-Peterson Archives

View looking North down Broadway. Just 13 years after it was built, the Peter C. Stohr Arcade Building was demolished to make way for expanded service. It was replaced by a "White City" styled station designed by architect Arthur U. Gerber.
 
 
 
Wilson Station Track Map 1947
 

Courtesy of Fast & Faster

Although this map depicts 1947, it is a representation of where the building was located.
 
 
 
Related Items
 
Date: Circa 1917

Title: Peter C. Stohr Arcade Building, Chicago circa 1917 (1909 - S.162).

Description: Designed in 1909, it was demolished in 1922, just 13 years after it was built. Viewed from the Northeast. A form of the light fixture Wright designed, or what is left of it, is visible above the Southeast corner on the roof of the first level. Large windows at the top of the first floor allow light into the interior and swing open at the bottom allowing air to naturally cool the building. The second floor window design consisting of large arched curves which were unique only in this Wright building. Courtesy of the Chicago Historical Society.

Size: 10 x 7 B&W photograph.

S#: 0138.09.0115

   
Date: Circa 1917

Title: Peter C. Stohr Arcade Building, Chicago circa 1917 (1909 - S.162).

Description: Designed in 1909, it was demolished in 1922, just 13 years after it was built. Viewed from the Northeast. On the far left, the Southeast corner of the street level, the mitered glass corner is visible. The second is in the center, just to the right of the gentleman window shopping. This may be the first example of Wright's use of mitered corners. A form of the light fixture Wright designed is visible above the Southeast corner on the roof of the first level. The large sets of vertical windows on the right cover two floors. The large vertical plate glass windows are nearly twelve feet high. Courtesy of the Krambles-Peterson Archives.

Size: 10 x 7 B&W photograph.

S#: 0138.10.0115

   

Date: 1922

Title: Peter C. Stohr Arcade Building, Chicago 1922 (1909 - S.162).

Description: Designed in 1909, it was demolished in 1922, just 13 years after it was built. During the late teens or very early 1920s, an addition was added to the Southeast corner. It enclosed the mitered glass corner, the glass light fixtures and incorporated a new clock. Courtesy of the CTA Collection.

Size: 10 x 5 B&W photograph.

S#: 0147.08.0115

   
   
   
Related Books
 
(1) "New York Times" October 13, 1887
(2) "The 1891 Grain Dealers and Shippers Gazetteer" Chicago, St. Paul & Kansas City Railway System, Officers: P. C. Stohr, Title: General Freight Agt., Chicago, Ill.
"The Official Railway List; a Complete Directory" Page 59, P. C. Stohr , General Freight Agt., Chicago, Ill.
(3) "Annual Report of the Railroad and Warehouse Commissioners of the State of Missouri, 1897" Letter A) St. Paul, Minn., March 16, 1897, P.C. Stohr, G.F.A, Letter B) March 27, 1897, P. C. Stohr, General Freight Agent.
"Annual Report of the Board of Railroad Commissioners, for the Year Ending 1898", Chicago Great Western Railway Company, Officer: P. C. Stohr, General Freight Agent, St. Paul, Minn office.
(4) "Annual Report of the Railroad and Warehouse Commission of the State of Illinois For 1901" Page 28, 225. Chicago Great Western Railway Company, Officer: P. C. Stohr, Traffic Manager, St. Paul, Minn office.
"Report of the Board of Railroad Commissioners, State of Kansas, for the year ending 1902" (Same for 1903 & 1904), Page 13, Chicago Great Western Railway Company, Officer: P. C. Stohr, Traffic Manager, St. Paul, Minn. office.
(5) "Poor's Directory of Railway Officials" Page 71, Southern Pacific Company, Assistant Traffic Director: P.C. Stohr, Chicago, Ill.  And Page 78, Union Pacific System, Oregon Short Line RR, Assistant Traffic Director: P.C. Stohr, Chicago, Ill.
(6) "New York Times" Nov 16, 1906 (PDF)
"Annual Report of the Board of Railroad Commissioners for the Year Ending 1907" Page 209, Board of Railroad Commissioners, Officers: P.C. Stohr, Assistant Traffic Director, Chicago, Ill.
"Reports of the Railroad and Public Service Commissions of Nevada" Page 140, Southern Pacific Company, Assistant Traffic Director: P.C. Stohr, Chicago, Ill.
"Railway age gazette" page 857. PC Stohr, Assistant Director of Traffic of the Southern Pacific company, the Union Pacific, the Oregon Short Line and the Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Company, will continue to have his office at Chicago, while the director of traffic has had his office moved to New York City, as has been announced in these columns.
(7) "New York Times" Obituary, April 26, 1912
(8) "The Chicago Blue Book" of 1912, Page 271-272, Mr. & Mrs. Peter C. Stohr & daughters, 1367 North State Street.
"The Nature of Materials: 1887 - 1941", Hitchcock, 1942, page 53.
"Frank Lloyd Wright to 1910, The First Golden Age" Manson, 1958, pages 168-169.
"Frank Lloyd Wright Monograph 1907-1913",  Vol. 3, Text: Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks; Edited and Photographed: Futagawa, Yukio, 1987, pages 124-125.
"The Frank Lloyd Wright Companion", Storrer, William Allin, 1993, page 165.
"Frank Lloyd Wright Architect", Riley, Reed, Alofsin, Cronon, Frampton, Wright, 1994, page 163.
"Lost Wright", Lind, 1996, page 142-143.
(9) "Frank Lloyd Wright - The Lost Years" Alofsin, 1998, page 312.
 
 
 
Additional Wright Studies
 
Adelman (S.344)    Banff National Park Pavilion (S.170)    Bitter Root Inn (S.145)    Blair Residence (S.351)    Blumberg Residence (Project) 
 
Boomer Residence (1953 - S.361)    Brandes Residence (S.350)    Browne's Bookstore (S.141)    Como Orchard Summer Colony (S.144)  
 
Cooke Residence (1953)    Copper Weed Urn & Weed Holder   
Disappearing City (1932)    Elam Residence (S.336)    "Eve of St. Agnes" (1896)  
 
Feiman Residence (S.371)    Frank L. Smith Bank (S.111)    Gordon Residence (S.419)   
Griggs Residence (S.290)    Hartford Resort (Project 1948) 
  Heller Residence (S.038)   
Henderson Residence (S.057)   
Hoffman Showroom (S.380)    Horner Residence (S.142)    "House Beautiful" 1896-98  
  Husser Residence (S.046)    Imperial Hotel (S.194) Silverware and Monogram    Japanese Print Stand (1908)    Kalil Residence (S.387)  
 
Lake Geneva Hotel (S.171)
   Lamp Cottage, Rocky Roost (S.021)    Lockridge Medical Clinic (S.425)    Lykes Residence (S.433)  
 
Marden Residence (S.357)    March Balloons    Midway Gardens (S.180)    Midway Gardens Dish (S.180)    Nakoma Clubhouse  
 
Nakoma Furniture    Opus 497    Pebbles & Balch Remodel (S.131)    Pilgrim Congregational Church (S.431) 
Loren B. Pope (S.268) 
  
Roloson Rowhouse (S.026)    Shavin Residence (S.339)    Sixty Years Exhibition 1951-56    J. L. Smith Residence (1955)    Steffens Residence (S.153)  
  Stohr Arcade (S.162)    Stromquiest Residence (S.429)    Sutton Residence (S.106)    Teater Studio (S.352)    Thurber Art Galleries (S.154)  
  Tracy Residence (S.389)    Trier Residence (S.398)    Usonian Automatic Homes    Williams (Way & Williams) (S.033)  
 
Wyoming Valley School (S.401)   
Zimmerman Residence, (S.333) 
 
Frank Lloyd Wright's First Published Article (1898)
 
Photographic Chronology of Frank Lloyd Wright Portraits
 
"Frank Lloyd Wright's Nakoma Clubhouse & Sculptures." A comprehensive study of Wright’s Nakoma Clubhouse and the Nakoma and Nakomis Sculptures. Now Available. Limited Edition. More information.

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